System for surgeons/cardiologists training in cardiac interventions and procedures

Data di pubblicazione






Data di priorità



International PCT patent application


Politecnico di Milano, Università degli Studi di Milano


Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering


Riccardo Vismara, Gianfranco B. Fiore, Alberto Redaelli et al.


The invention consists in a system aimed at the training of surgeons or cardiologists in cardiac interventions and surgical procedures. This system is a compact and easy-handled apparatus capable of reproducing the opening/closing movement of the heart valves, thus allowing training procedures to be carried out in a highly realistic environment. The system hosts a whole animal heart (e.g. swine, sheep), easily available from food industry suppliers, which is hydraulically actuated in order to accurately replicate the dynamics of the mitral and aortic valves (plus the tricuspid and pulmonary valves, in case of necessity). If desired, the animal heart can be replaced by an artificial model. The actuation system consists of 5 main components: 1) An adjustable pumping system, featuring higher reliability, ease of use and compactness with respect to is the systems that are typically used in similar apparatuses. 2) A system of valves that directs the flow rate generated by the pump to simulate the typical pulsatility of the cardiovascular system. 3) A whole animal heart (or artificial model) connected to the hydraulic system. 4) A hydraulic element constituting the pre/post hydraulic load, that makes a closed circuit with the heart sample. Such circuit is more reliable, easy-to-use and compact with respect to the standard solutions. 5) A control system comprising, e.g. a touchscreen to adjust the working parameters of the system.

Campo di applicazione

The application field of this invention is the training of cardiologists and surgeons and the evaluation of new techniques or new intracardiac devices, including minimally invasive or transcatheter implants.


The device is extremely compact and easy-to-use also for non-technical personnel from the clinical field. These features make the system suitable to be used in complex environments, such as Cath-Labs (where it can be placed on a standard patient bed), with standard, clinical-oriented imaging techniques (e.g. fluoroscopy, endoscopy, echocardiography, echo-Doppler). The hydraulic design allows for a correct dynamics of the heart sub-structures. The fluid actuation system is cost effective, reliable and self-regulating, hence it ensures simple manageability even for non-engineering personnel.

Stadio di sviluppo

Working prototype.